Children participating in Community-Led Total Sanitation in the GSF-supported programme in Cambodia.

Executing Agency: Plan Cambodia

Grant Agreement signed: March 2011

Country Programme Monitor: PricewaterhouseCoopers


The GSF country programme in Cambodia is known as the Cambodia rural Sanitation and Hygiene Improvement

Programme (CR-SHIP). It is currently implemented in the five provinces of Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu, Kandal, Svay Rieng and Takeo, expanding in 2015 to the provinces of Kampot, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Thom, Kratie, and Prey Veng from additional  GSF funding.

The goal of CR-SHIP is to increase access to improved sanitation in rural Cambodia and promote the sustainable practice of key sanitation and hygiene behaviours. This work has been driven by collaboration, including partnerships with the World bank Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP) and UNICEF for the development of the Ministry of rural Development WASH Monitoring and Evaluation System; with UNICEF for updating the National Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Guidelines; and with three international and 11 local NGOs in direct sanitation and hygiene promotion activities in more than 2,000 rural villages in the first phase of CR-SHIP from 2011 to 2014. The programme works with the Ministry of rural Development on advocacy work with key decisions makers in government.

Progress: The number of communities being reached through triggering activities and with key WASH messages exceeded targets. By end December 2014, the Sub-grantees had conducted community-led total sanitation triggering activities in 1,739 villages (up from 700 at the end of 2013) of the target 2020 villages. This resulted in a total of 445 villages with open-defecation free (ODF) status (up from 128 at the end of 2013).

Sub-grantees conduct extensive follow-ups to ensure that triggered villages attain ODF status or increase the use of improved sanitation facilities. As of December 2014, the total number of households with improved toilets after GSF interventions  was 321,900, a 105 percent  increase on December 2013.

Analysis: CR-SHIP sustained its good results in 2014, thanks to the commitment of all implementing partners and the sustained efforts of the Executing Agency (EA) and the Programme Coordinating Mechanism to promote sector collaboration. The partnership, which brings together the Ministry of rural Development, UNICEF, WSP and the GSF on monitoring and evaluation, is a prime example of the GSF’s impact on sector collaboration in Cambodia.

While a number of programmatic challenges still need to be addressed, in particular the low performance of the open- defecation free indicator, the overall programme remains on track to meets its objectives and targets. A 2014 outcome survey confirmed the EA’s reported results, and those of 18 implementing partners. The programme expansion is also on track and is well timed to integrate the findings and recommendations of the mid-term evaluation (MTE).

Innovation: Starting in 2013, the 3 behaviour in 1 Hour (3B1H) tool was developed and improved through direct use by Sub-grantees in target villages and through a participatory review in two ‘communities of practice’ for sector professionals in 2014. The tool has proven to be a vital process in bringing villages to open-defecation free status and others to higher rates of access to improved sanitation.

Monitoring and evaluation: In July, before a mid-term evaluation of the programme, an outcome survey was conducted in representative villages of the programme by an external independent consultant. The outcome survey generated quantitative and qualitative information on key progress and results indicators of CR-SHIP provinces.  In August, the independent mid-term evaluation team contracted by GSF visited Cambodia to evaluate the programme progress using the outcome survey data sets. The programme was found to lack a responsive monitoring and evaluation system. The Executing Agency now has a draft monitoring and evaluation plan and system in place.

Challenges: The main challenge in 2014 for programme implementation was the continued low ODF success rate amongst a majority of the Sub-grantees. Causes of the low ODF rate were analyzed with Sub-grantees in the CLTS in-depth review exercise, and measures to promote improved performance have been applied. Another challenge was high staff turnover at the Executing Agency team. The Executing Agency has now re-organized the implementation team with a new programme manager, new finance and, administration and programme staff, and a monitoring and evaluation consultant.

Lessons learned: The main lessons learned in 2014 come from the in-depth CLTS review by the Executing Agency and the Sub-grantees in the fourth quarter of the year. The review highlights the need to develop applied selection criteria for CLTS target villages and roles and responsibilities for village focal points. Applying these measures can help increase the number of people with improved toilets as well as the number of people living in ODF environments.

Learning events: Two Sub-grantee quarterly meetings were held, where Sub-grantees and the Executing Agency shared lessons learned and challenges from field implementation and discussed ways to improve work. The programme had two ‘community of practice’ activities for the 3b1H tool. These activities included the compilation of field- based inputs from Sub-grantees to further improve the tool’s delivery processes and applicability in different community contexts.

From August to September, the Executing Agency led the in-depth review of the CLTS implementation experience in the programme.  Executing Agency and Sub-grantee learning was integrated, shared and discussed during the first annual learning event held in November 2014. At the event, initiatives to integrate gender considerations in CR-SHIP were addressed. This began with a survey among Sub-grantees on levels of gender knowledge, awareness and the integration or presence of such knowledge in their sub-projects.

At the end of 2014, the Ministry of rural Development held a review of its advocacy work, resulting in a decision to prepare a revised results framework and, based on the framework, prepare and submit a new advocacy proposal for consideration by the Executing Agency and GSF. Lastly, a media training event was conducted for Sub-grantee representatives and local journalists. The event had two aims: to encourage journalists to report on sanitation and hygiene issues, and to learn more about CR-SHIP; and to equip Sub-grantee staff with skills that help them communicate about their work to the media and other stakeholders.

The year ahead, 2015 and beyond: Preparatory work for the grant extension (CR-SHIP 2) began in June 2014. An inception workshop was held with all relevant stakeholders. New contractors include a baseline-study consultant and Sub-grantees for technical assistance as well as learning and documentation. The technical assistance grant in CR-SHIP 2 encompasses all capacity building and technical support to Sub-grantees and partners in CR-SHIP. Another activity for 2015 is planning the Participatory Social Assessment and Mapping pilot and developing implementation guidelines. The Executing Agency continues to work closely with the Programme Coordinating Mechanism, which has been re-organized, and is now strategically based in the Technical Working Group Secretariat of the Ministry of Rural Development’s Rural Water and Sanitation Division.


Last updated: Tue, 05/26/2015 - 16:09