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Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies - 2nd Edition

Sanitation is a key element of sustainable development and significantly influences people’s health and wellbeing worldwide.

This second, revised edition of the Compendium presents a huge range of information on sanitation systems and technologies in one volume. By ordering and structuring tried and tested technologies into once concise document, the reader is provided with a useful planning tool for making more informed decisions.

 

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Author: Elizabeth Tilley, Lukas Ulrich, Christoph Lüthi, Philippe Reymond and Christian Zurbrügg
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English
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Last updated: Wed, 07/30/2014 - 13:03

Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), World Bank, Handwashing with Soap Toolkit

The behavior change module introduces the theory of change and key components of the approach WSP used in the project. This module includes four presentations:

  1. Behavior Change Overview
  2. FOAM Framework (see below)
  3. Enabling Products
  4. Monitoring

The Tools section includes a link to a database of enabling products for handwashing maintained by WSP, and the Country Intervention tab provides links to the country pages which shares documents, videos, and other materials used during implementation. 

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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 13:29

Difficulties in Maintaining Improved Handwashing Behavior, Karachi, Pakistan

In an earlier study in Karachi, Pakistan, households that received free soap and handwashing promotion for 9 months reported 53% less diarrhea than controls. Eighteen months after the intervention ended, these households were enrolled in a follow-up study to assess sustainability of handwashing behavior. Upon re-enrollment, mothers in households originally assigned to the intervention were 1.5 times more likely to have a place with soap and water to wash hands (79% versus 53%, P = 0.001) and when asked to wash hands were 2.2 times more likely to rub their hands together at least three times (50% versus 23%, P = 0.002) compared with controls. In the ensuing 14 months, former intervention households reported a similar proportion of person-days with diarrhea (1.59% versus 1.88%, P = 0.66) as controls. Although intervention households showed better handwashing technique after 2 years without intervention, their soap purchases and diarrhea experience was not significantly different from controls.

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Author: Stephen P. Luby, Mubina Agboatwalla, Anna Bowen, Eben Kenah, Yushuf Sharker, Robert M. Hoekstra
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Last updated: Thu, 03/13/2014 - 15:05

Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) World Bank

These TORs are to guide an organization that is seeking to hire an independent research firm to conduct a consumer survey in an area, if applicable or nationally representative.

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Last updated: Thu, 03/13/2014 - 15:57

Behavioural economics

Standard neoclassical economic analysis assumes that humans are rational and behave in a way to maximise their individual self-interest. While this ‘rational man’ assumption yields a powerful tool for analysis, it has many shortfalls that can lead to unrealistic economic analysis and policy-making. This briefing distils many concepts from behavioural economics and psychology down to seven key principles, which highlight the main shortfalls in the neoclassical model of human behaviour.

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Author: New Economics Institute
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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:27

Health Belief Model (HBM)

HBMis a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. This is done by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. The HBM was spelled out in terms of four constructs representing the perceived threat and net benefits: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers. These concepts were proposed as accounting for people's "readiness to act." An added concept, cues to action, would activate that readiness and stimulate overt behavior. A recent addition to the HBM is the concept of self-efficacy, or one's confidence in the ability to successfully perform an action. This concept was added by Rosenstock and others in 1988 to help the HBM better fit the challenges of changing habitual unhealthy behaviors, such as being sedentary, smoking, or overeating.

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Author: University of Twente
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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:28

Transtheoretical model

The Transtheoretical Model is a model of intentional change. It is a model that focuses on the decision making of the individual. Five stages of change have been conceptualized for a variety of problem behaviors. The five stages of change are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance.

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Author: University of Maryland Baltimore County, Cancer Prevention Research Center
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Last updated: Thu, 04/17/2014 - 16:59

Theory of reasoned action

According to this model, a person’s behavior is determined by his/her behavioral intention to perform it. This intention is itself determined by the person’s attitudes and his/her subjective norms towards the behavior. Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) define the subjective norms as “the person’s perception that most people who are important to him/her think s/he should or should not perform the behavior in question”. This theory can be summarized by the following equation: Behavioral Intention = Attitude + Subjective norms

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Author: Edutech Wiki
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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:36

Theory of planned behavior

The concept was proposed by Icek Ajzen to improve on the predictive power of the theory of reasoned action (see above) by including perceived behavioural control. See Icek Ajzen’s website on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for more information.

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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:53

Social cognitive theory

The social cognitive theory explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies (Bandura, 1997). Evaluating behavioral change depends on the factors environment, people and behavior. SCT provides a framework for designing, implementing and evaluating programs.

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Author: University of Twente
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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:55