Showing result 41 to 50 of 1802

Behavioural economics

Standard neoclassical economic analysis assumes that humans are rational and behave in a way to maximise their individual self-interest. While this ‘rational man’ assumption yields a powerful tool for analysis, it has many shortfalls that can lead to unrealistic economic analysis and policy-making. This briefing distils many concepts from behavioural economics and psychology down to seven key principles, which highlight the main shortfalls in the neoclassical model of human behaviour.

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Author: New Economics Institute
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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:27

Health Belief Model (HBM)

HBMis a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. This is done by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. The HBM was spelled out in terms of four constructs representing the perceived threat and net benefits: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers. These concepts were proposed as accounting for people's "readiness to act." An added concept, cues to action, would activate that readiness and stimulate overt behavior. A recent addition to the HBM is the concept of self-efficacy, or one's confidence in the ability to successfully perform an action. This concept was added by Rosenstock and others in 1988 to help the HBM better fit the challenges of changing habitual unhealthy behaviors, such as being sedentary, smoking, or overeating.

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Author: University of Twente
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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:28

Transtheoretical model

The Transtheoretical Model is a model of intentional change. It is a model that focuses on the decision making of the individual. Five stages of change have been conceptualized for a variety of problem behaviors. The five stages of change are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance.

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Author: University of Maryland Baltimore County, Cancer Prevention Research Center
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Last updated: Thu, 04/17/2014 - 16:59

Theory of reasoned action

According to this model, a person’s behavior is determined by his/her behavioral intention to perform it. This intention is itself determined by the person’s attitudes and his/her subjective norms towards the behavior. Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) define the subjective norms as “the person’s perception that most people who are important to him/her think s/he should or should not perform the behavior in question”. This theory can be summarized by the following equation: Behavioral Intention = Attitude + Subjective norms

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Author: Edutech Wiki
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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:36

Theory of planned behavior

The concept was proposed by Icek Ajzen to improve on the predictive power of the theory of reasoned action (see above) by including perceived behavioural control. See Icek Ajzen’s website on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for more information.

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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:53

Social cognitive theory

The social cognitive theory explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies (Bandura, 1997). Evaluating behavioral change depends on the factors environment, people and behavior. SCT provides a framework for designing, implementing and evaluating programs.

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Author: University of Twente
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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:55

Social marketing

Social marketing is concerned with the application of marketing knowledge, concepts, and techniques to enhance social as well as economic ends. It is also concerned with the analysis of the social consequences of marketing policies, decisions and activities.

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Author: Institute for Social Marketing, University of Stirling
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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:57

Evo-Eco model to behaviour change

Evo-Eco is a new approach to understanding behavior change. It is called ‘Evo-Eco’ because of its intellectual roots in evolutionary biology and ecological psychology. It is based on the insight that brains evolved to provide adaptive behavioural responses to rapidly changing or complex environmental conditions. This webpage is devoted to providing web-based resources associated with this approach developed for those interested in the science of behaviour change, as well as those needing a practical tool-kit to help develop health promotion projects.

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Author: Hygiene Central
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Last updated: Wed, 03/12/2014 - 13:09

UN Women and WSSCC partner for women and girls in West Africa

On the margins of International Women's Day commemoration across Senegal and West and Central Africa, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment (UN Women) and the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) have formed an official partnership. The aim is to take action and to strengthen policies in health, hygiene and sanitation in order to contribute to improving economic and social living conditions for women and girls in West and Central Africa.

Source: WSSCC/UN Women
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9 March 2014

What a day! UN partners WSSCC and OHCHR gather diverse stakeholders to foreground sanitation, rights and dignity for women

Grass-roots activists shared inspirational experiences on reducing female circumcision in Senegal, raising awareness of lesbian and transgender issues in Nepal and working for the dignity of sex workers in India at a special meeting at the United Nations headquarters in Geneva on Friday.

Source: WSSCC
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7 March 2014