The Global Sanitation Fund programme in Madagascar

Date: 15th May 2015

Array ( [0] => WP_Term Object ( [term_id] => 8 [name] => Global Sanitation Fund [slug] => globalsanitationfund [term_group] => 0 [term_taxonomy_id] => 8 [taxonomy] => category [description] => [parent] => 0 [count] => 152 [filter] => raw [term_order] => 3 [cat_ID] => 8 [category_count] => 152 [category_description] => [cat_name] => Global Sanitation Fund [category_nicename] => globalsanitationfund [category_parent] => 0 ) )

madagascar_countrypage_gsf_chaise_anglaise copy

Executing Agency:
Medical Care Development International (MCDI)
Programme duration:
Programme Coordinating Mechanism:
Chaired by an independent scholar and member of the Diorano WASH coalition

As one of the leading programmes in Madagascar’s WASH sector, ‘Fonds d’Appui pour l’Assainissement’ (FAA) engages tens of thousands of actors in the national movement to eliminate open defecation and improve sanitation in communities. The FAA works in all 22 regions of the country through 27 Implementing Partners, and it is also part of the broader Diorano WASH coalition.

2016 Highlights

The FAA focused on enhancing the quality of its implementation and sustainability of its gains across the communities it covers. This included supporting communities to ensure the sustainability of ODF status and achieve ODF in challenging contexts.

In addition, programme partners developed plans to expand the FAA’s work, resulting in the approval of a four-year expansion (2017-2020). The expansion will focus on scaling up to new geographical areas and sustaining results, as well as fostering an enabling environment for WASH actors through enhanced learning, coordination and resource mobilization. The expansion phase will also focus on the implementation of a phase-out strategy and the gradual transfer of responsibilities and skills to various local actors, in order to ensure the sustainability of results to date. These actors will include decentralized institutions, national and regional chapters of Diorano WASH and community actors such as Natural Leaders, community consultants and community engineers.

The programme also worked to strengthen monitoring and evaluation tools by focusing on quality assurance of data as well as the performance evaluation of implementing partners. 2016 was also characterized by learning – the FAA hosted the global GSF Learning Event and drove learning exchanges with other GSF-supported programmes.

To date, the FAA has reported enabling over 1.9 million people to live in ODF environments, and over 3 million to access improved toilets, including fly-proof toilets. This includes over 16,000 communities declared ODF.


The FAA has actively worked to refine its tools and strategies to address and prevent slippage, particularly for the most vulnerable and hard-to-reach communities. The main strategy will be establishing networks and associations of local actors (which include Natural Leaders and Community Consultants), as a way to institutionalize their invaluable support in the sanitation movement and sustain progress. In addition, sector coordination and harmonization of approaches, including CLTS, is one of the major challenges faced in Madagascar’s WASH sector. These and other challenges are addressed in the FAA’s expansion plan.

Learning and innovation

In 2016, the FAA continued to test, scale up and share several innovations to encourage communities to climb the sanitation ladder, develop low-cost technologies, establish financing mechanisms (particularly village savings and loan associations), and address sanitation beyond households.

The FAA-hosted GSF Learning Event in April brought together all GSF-supported programmes, including government officials and sanitation sector practitioners. During the event the FAA programme presented their results and innovative approaches, which included launching a handbook on Follow-up MANDONA, a post-triggering approach helping communities rapidly achieve and sustain ODF status. Participants discussed the potential of applying and replicating these innovations and also provided recommendations for improvement.

2016 was also characterized by several learning exchanges driven by the FAA involving GSF-supported programmes in Benin, Niger, Nigeria and Togo to share FUM and Institutional Triggering . The programme also exchanged learning with the Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor partnership to identify opportunities for collaboration in urban areas. In addition, coaches have been mobilized from best practice implementing partners, to support other implementing partners around various themes.

Together with CLTS pioneer Kamal Kar, the FAA served as the core inspiration for a GSF slippage reflection paper. The programme also provided key inputs and support for a gender and CLTS study in Malagasy villages. The FAA has since taken concrete actions to strengthen its approach to addressing slippage and inclusive programming. For example, its CLTS training curriculum has been revised to focus more on equality and non-discrimination and provide guidance on ensuring that women participate more meaningfully throughout the CLTS process. Sanitation Ladder Triggering has also been used to address the challenge of encouraging communities to climb the sanitation ladder.

Looking ahead

Going forward, the FAA will focus on implementing its 2017-2020 expansion plan, which will support commitments made by Madagascar to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. This will include reinforcing approaches for implementation and sustainability, to ensure equal access to sustainable and safely managed sanitation. A workshop will take place in 2017 to reflect on lessons learned from the past 7 years, as well as how the FAA will evolve going forward.

Related News

Through peer-to-peer learning, the Global Sanitation Fund is harnessing the immense amount of knowledge.

GSF workshops support programmes to monitor progress towards and beyond Open Defecation Free status.

10 principles for ensuring that disadvantaged people benefit effectively from sanitation programmes and processes

Study confirms that disadvantaged groups have benefited from Global Sanitation Fund (GSF)-supported programmes, but more proactive attention is needed