Resources

This resource page provides you with quick access to some of our most popular publications, e-toolkits and knowledge resources to key issues. Please explore the below resources or contact us for help with sanitation, hygiene and water supply-related resources, research or ideas.

8 resources found


Resources

Guidelines on Gender Issues in Sanitation- Government of India

Equality
The following guidelines on Gender Issues in Sanitation have been issued by the Government of India.

Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India

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Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. This study examines sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women’s reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. It explores daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women and identified stressors encountered during sanitation.

Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Practicing Poor Sanitation in Rural India

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Pregnancy is usually a happy time for women and their families. But, for some women, pregnancy ends unhappily. Some women lose their baby during early pregnancy (spontaneous abortion or miscarriage) or during late pregnancy (stillbirth). Others have their baby earlier than expected (preterm birth) or have a baby with low birth weight, two outcomes that adversely affect the baby’s survival and long-term health. The burden of adverse pregnancy outcomes (low birth weight, preterm birth, stillbirth, and spontaneous abortion) is substantial across the world but is particularly high in resource-limited settings. Many risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) have been identified, including infection, diabetes, poor antenatal care, and other socio-economic factors, but a clear causal mechanism for adverse pregnancy outcomes has not been established. This population-based study conducted in rural India assesses whether poor sanitation practices were associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weight.

Menstrual Hygiene Practices, WASH Access and the Risk of Urogenital Infection in Women from Odisha

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Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices vary worldwide and depend on the individual’s socioeconomic status, personal preferences, local traditions and beliefs, and access to water and sanitation resources. MHM practices can be particularly unhygienic and inconvenient for girls and women in poorer settings. Little is known about whether unhygienic MHM practices increase a woman’s exposure to urogenital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and urinary tract infection (UTI). This study aimed to determine the association of MHM practices with urogenital infections, controlling for environmental drivers. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted on 486 women at Odisha, India.

A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India

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While sanitation interventions have focused primarily on child health, women's unique health risks from inadequate sanitation are gaining recognition as a priority issue. This study examines the range of sanitation-related psychosocial stressors during routine sanitation practices in Odisha, India. Between August 2013 and March 2014, in-depth interviews with 56 women in four life stages were conducted: adolescent, newly married, pregnant and established adult women in three settings: urban slums, rural villages and indigenous villages. Using a grounded theory approach, the study team transcribed, translated, coded and discussed interviews using detailed analytic memos to identify and characterize stressors at each life stage and study site.

Impact of Inadequate Access to WASH facilities

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The SHARE Research Consortium and WSSCC formed a research partnership in 2013 to investigate the specific impact of inadequate access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities on women and girls in India and Bangladesh. These four briefing notes converge on the lack of safe and acceptable choices for women and girls. Links between unsafe sanitation and women and girls’ poor health in terms of stress and infections are raised and major evidence gaps are highlighted. The higher incidence of reproductive tract infections linked to poor menstrual hygiene management under socioeconomically deprived groups is striking.This study of how women’s psycho-social stress relates to inadequate sanitation highlights the range of women’s experiences.The findings of this study demonstrate that the lack of sanitation has important implications for the mental, social, and reproductive health of women in rural India.As demonstrated in the WASH & CLEAN study, visual assessment alone of cleanliness on maternity units is an inadequate basis on which to conclude safety in terms of potential pathogens.

Defining and measuring Swachhata - Verification workshop

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The two-day residential workshop had a Pan-India representation of national, state, district, Gram Panchayat and community level functionaries and practitioners. Through a series of discussions, group exercises and plenary synthesis sessions: What is Open Defecation Free and therefore, how, when to measure or verify it were discussed for a Swachh Bharat. This report captures the detailed deliberations, discussions, questions and outcomes of the workshop.This note is prepared by WSSCC summarizes the main outcomes of the jointly convened workshop by GOI and WSSCC on verification of sanitation outcomes under Swachh Bharat. It is accompanied by a summary power point presentation (Prepared by WSSCC) and a detailed workshop report (prepared by the rapporturing team of Vijeta Rao and Anjali Verma). The workshop report captured all discussions and observations by participants including differing points of view, observations and further questions for analysis. This summary note presents key agreed principles together with recommendations for meaningful measurement of progress.Synthesis and recommendations from the first national verification workshop - Presentation by Archana Patkar and Vinod Mishra

India WASH Forum - WASH News and Policy Update e-Newsletter, Issue # 38

Collaboration
The India WASH Forum stands for an independent, credible voice in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector. The WASH News and Policy Update e-Newsletter  is issued every second month and acts as an open platform for engagement on contemporary issues in the Indian WASH sector and elsewhere. In the January 2015 issue, WASH experts provide an analytical perspective of ongoing developments, including the landmark judgment of the Mumbai High Court on the right to water as an integral part of the right to life, a new set of guidelines on the Swachh Bharat Mission launched in October 2014, and excerpts of a joint study carried out by WSSCC and the SHARE Research Consortium, investigating the specific impact of inadequate access to water, sanitation and hygiene facilities on women and girls in India and Bangladesh.